Pre-feasibility study on extension of small irrigation schemes in the North African Sub-region
Author(s)/Corporate Author (s)United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Subregional Office for North Africa;
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Historically, water management has not been easy in the sub-region. Three climate interlinked factors have had a direct influence on it. The first is the aridity that affects all countries of the sub-region. It is impressing to think that about ninety percent of the area of the Maghrebine countries receive less than 100 mm rainfall per year that is poorly distributed. The second is the huge evaporation from open water reservoirs. For example, annual losses due to canal evaporation reach 2 cubic km in Egypt. Another factor is drought. All countries have since centuries been affected by recurrent and heavy droughts. This has negatively affected the water stocks capacity and lessened the agricultural output. All these factors have led to desertification and risks of land degradation. the main objectives of the study are: to analyse the information on status of sub-regional irrigation; to focus on the importance and opportunities of sprinkler and micro-irrigation systems: to identify solutions for minimizing disadvantages; to highlight and analyze critical environmental problems linked to the use of chemicals (chemigation) and of fertilizers (fertigation) for sprinkler and micro-irrigation technologies; and to suggest measures for expanding drip/sprinkler irrigation in the sub-region.